Published Papers

Published Papers:    (also see our EU funders’ page on Open Access)

  1. Otero, A., Allen, V., Pol, D., Hutchinson, J.R. 2017. Forelimb muscle and joint actions in Archosauria: insights from Crocodylus johnstoni (Pseudosuchia) and Mussaurus patagonicus (Sauropodomorpha). PeerJ 5:e3976. Models available at Figshare: and
  2. Heers, A.M., Rankin, J.W., Hutchinson, J.R. 2018. Building a bird: Musculoskeletal modeling and simulation of wing-assisted incline running during avian ontogeny. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology 6:140.
  3. Ellis, R., Rankin, J.W., Hutchinson, J.R. 2018. Limb kinematics, kinetics and muscle dynamics during the sit-to-stand transition in greyhounds. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology 6:162. Data available at
  4. Monticelli, P., Ronaldson, H.L., Hutchinson, J.R., Cuff, A.R., d’Ovidio D., Adami, C. 2019. Medetomidine-ketamine-sevoflurane anaesthesia in juvenile Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) undergoing experimental surgery. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 46:84-89.
  5. Cuff, A.R., Daley, M.A., Michel, K.B., Allen, V.R., Lamas, Luis P., Adami, C., Monticelli, P., Pelligand, L., Hutchinson, J.R. 2019. Relating neuromuscular control to functional anatomy of limb muscles in extant archosaurs. Journal of Morphology 280:666-680.    Repository link to manuscript:
  6. Otero, A., Cuff, A.R., Allen, V., Sumner-Rooney, L., Pol, D., Hutchinson, J.R. 2019. Ontogenetic changes in the body plan of the sauropodomorph dinosaur Mussaurus patagonicus reveal shifts of locomotor stance during growth. Scientific Reports 9:7614. Data available at
  7. Bishop, P.J. 2019. Testing the function of dromaeosaurid (Dinosauria, Theropoda) ‘sickle claws’ through musculoskeletal modelling and optimization. PeerJ 7:e7577. Supplementary code and model files:
  8. Hutchinson, J.R., Felkler, D., Houston, K., Chang, Y.-M., Brueggen, J., Kledzik, D. and Vliet, K.A. 2019. Divergent evolution of terrestrial locomotor abilities in extant Crocodylia. Scientific Reports 9:19302. Data available at
  9. Scheyer, T.M., Hutchinson, J.R., Strauss, O., Delfino, M., Carrillo-Briceño, J.D., Sánchez, R., Sánchez-Villagra, M.R. 2019. Giant extinct caiman breaks constraint on the axial skeleton of extant crocodylians. eLife 8:e49972.
  10. Ronaldson, H.L., Monticelli, P., Cuff, A.R., Michel, K.B., d’Ovidio, D., Adami, C. 2020. Anesthesia and anesthetic-related complications of 8 Elegant-Crested Tinamous (Eudromia elegans) undergoing experimental surgery. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 34(1):17-25.
  11. Bianchi, C., Adami, C., Dirrig, H., Cuff, A., d’Ovidio, D., & Monticelli, P. 2020. Mandibular nerve block in juvenile Nile crocodile: a cadaveric study. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 47(6):835-842. 
  12. Demuth, O.E., Rayfield, E.J., Hutchinson, J.R., 2020. 3D hindlimb joint mobility of the stem-archosaur Euparkeria capensis with implications for postural evolution within Archosauria. Scientific Reports 10:15357. Data available at

  13. Michel, K.B., West, T.G., Daley, M.A., Allen, V.R., Hutchinson, J.R. 2020. Appendicular muscle physiology and biomechanics in Crocodylus niloticus. Integrative Organismal Biology obaa038.
  14. Bishop, P.J., Bates, K.T., Allen, V.R., Henderson, D.M., Randau, M., Hutchinson, J.R. 2020. Relationships of mass properties and body proportions to locomotor habit in terrestrial Archosauria. Paleobiology 46:550-568. doi: Data available at
  15. Bishop, P.J., Cuff, A.R., Hutchinson, J.R. 2021. How to build a dinosaur: musculoskeletal modelling and simulation of locomotor biomechanics in extinct animals. Paleobiology 47:1-38. doi: (Featured Article– see Data available at
  16. Schachner, E.R., Hedrick, B.P., Richbourg, H.A., Hutchinson, J.R., Farmer, C.G. 2021. Anatomy, ontogeny, and evolution of the archosaurian respiratory system: a case study on Alligator mississippiensis and Struthio camelus. Journal of Anatomy 238:845-873. doi: Data available at
  17. van Beesel, J., Hutchinson, J.R., Hublin, J.-J., Melillo, S. 2021. Exploring the functional morphology of the Gorilla shoulder through musculoskeletal modelling. Journal of Anatomy 239:207-227. doi:
  18. Allen, V.R., Kilbourne, B.M., Hutchinson, J.R. 2021. The evolution of pelvic limb muscle moment arms in bird-line archosaurs. Science Advances 7:eabe2778. 
  19. Bishop, P.J., Michel, K.B., Falisse, A., Cuff, A.R., Allen, V.R., De Groote, F., Hutchinson, J.R. 2021. Computational modelling of muscle fibre operating ranges in the hindlimb of a small ground bird (Eudromia elegans), with implications for modelling locomotion in extinct species. PLOS Computational Biology 7:e1008843. Data available at, study identifier ‘Tinamou Walking and Running’
  20. Wiseman, A.L.A., Bishop, P.J., Demuth, O.E., Cuff, A.R., Michel, K.B., Hutchinson, J.R. 2021. Musculoskeletal modelling of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) hindlimb: effects of limb posture on leverage during terrestrial locomotion. Journal of Anatomy 239:424-444. Data available at
  21. Bishop, P.J., Falisse, A., De Groote, F., Hutchinson, J.R. 2021. Predictive simulations of musculoskeletal function and jumping performance in a generalized bird. Integrative Organismal Biology obab006.
  22. Hutchinson, J.R. 2021. The evolutionary biomechanics of locomotor function in giant land animals. Journal of Experimental Biology 224: jeb217463.
  23. Bishop, P.J., Falisse, A., De Groote, F., Hutchinson, J.R. 2021. Predictive simulations of running gait reveal a critical dynamic role for the tail in bipedal dinosaur locomotion. Science Advances: Volume 7, article abi7348

    Multimedia (including images, videos and animations) can be accessed here: 

  24. Pintore, R., Houssaye, A., Nesbitt, S.J., Hutchinson, J.R. 2021. Femoral specializations to locomotor habits in early archosauriforms. Journal of Anatomy, published online. Data at
  25. Wiseman, A.L.A., Demuth, O., Hutchinson, J.R. 2022. A guide to inverse kinematic marker-guided rotoscoping using IK solvers. Integrative Organismal Biology obac002.
  26. Polet, D.T., Hutchinson, J.R. 2022. Estimating gaits of an ancient crocodile-line archosaur through trajectory optimization, with comparison to fossil trackways. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology.
  27. Gatesy, S.M., Manafzadeh, A.R., Bishop, P.J., Turner, M.L., Kambic, R.E., Cuff, A.R., Hutchinson, J.R. 2022. A proposed standard for quantifying 3-D hindlimb joint poses in living and extinct archosaurs. Journal of Anatomy, published online.
  28. Demuth, O.E., Wiseman, A.L.A., Mallison, H., van Beesel, J., Hutchinson, J.R. 2022. Three-dimensional polygonal muscle modelling and line of action estimation in living and extinct taxa. Scientific Reports 12:3358.
  29. van Beesel, J., Hutchinson, J.R., Hublin, J.-J., Melillo, S. 2022. Comparison of the arm-lowering performance between Gorilla and Homo through musculoskeletal modeling. American Journal of Biological Anthropology, published online.
  30. Cuff, A.R., Demuth, O.E., Michel, K.B., Otero, A., Pintore, R., Polet, D.T., Wiseman, A.L.A., Hutchinson, J.R. 2022. Walking — and running and jumping — with dinosaurs and their cousins, viewed through the lens of evolutionary biomechanics. Integrative and Comparative Biology. 
  31. Cooper, J.A., Hutchinson, J.R., Bernvi, D.C., Cliff, G., Wilson, R.P., Dicken, M.L., Menzel, J., Wroe, S., Pirlo, J., Pimiento, C. 2022. The extinct shark Otodus megalodon was a transoceanic super-predator: Inferences from 3D modelling. Science Advances 8:abm9424. 
  32. Cuff, A.R., Wiseman, A.L.A., Bishop, P.J., Michel, K., Gaignet, R., Hutchinson, J.R. 2022. Anatomically grounded estimation of hindlimb muscle sizes in Archosauria. Journal of Anatomy, published online. Data at: and code:

  33. Egawa, S., Griffin, C.T., Bishop, P.J., Pintore, R., Tsai, H.P., Botelho, J.F., Smith-Parades, D., Kurutani, S., Norell, M.A., Nesbitt, S.J., Hutchinson, J.R., Bhullar, B-A.S. 2022. The femoral head of birds evolved via a shift from torsion to growth along the avian stem. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 289:20220740.

  34. Demuth, O.E., Wiseman, A.L.A., Hutchinson, J.R. 2023. Quantitative biomechanical assessment of locomotor capabilities of the stem archosaur Euparkeria capensis. Royal Society Open Science 10:221195.
  35. Gônet, J., Bardin, J., Girondot, M., Hutchinson, J.R., Laurin, M. 2023. Locomotor and postural diversity among reptiles viewed through the prism of femoral microanatomy: palaeobiological implications for some Permian and Mesozoic taxa. Journal of Anatomy.

  36. Demuth, O.E., Herbst, E., Polet, D., Wiseman, A.L.A., Hutchinson, J.R. 2023. Modern three-dimensional digital methods for studying locomotor biomechanics in tetrapods. Journal of Experimental Biology 226 (Suppl_1): jeb245132.
  37. Macaulay, S., Hoehfurtner, T., Cross, S., Marek, R.D., Hutchinson, J.R., Schachner, E.R., Maher, A.E. Bates, K.T. 2023. Decoupling body shape and mass distribution in birds and their dinosaurian ancestors. Nature Communications 14:1575.